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Gems Study

Color Stones

Ruby-like red colored stones that occur in Myanmar are Almandine, Pyrite, Spivel, Tournaline (Rubellite), Moonstones, Amber, Topaz and Zicon etc. The red Amber that occurred in Myanmar is reputed to be the rarest in the world. Although colored stones are not as expensive compares to diamond, rubies or sapphires but are marched preferred too in Myanmar markets and also in other countries. These ornamental stones are highly valued if beautiful designs and quality workmanship are combined as intrinsic works of art.


Myanmar’s pearls are classed as ‘south Sea Pearls’, which is the most expensive type of pearls. Myanmar has started its cultivation process in 1957. Five species of oysters occur in the territorial water of Myanmar. Myanmar white pearls are very popular globally.


Pharkant, a major production area of jade, located at Myitkyina District in Kachin State. Jade can generally be categorized as jadeite and nephrite jade. It can fetch high prices depending upon the quality, color and luster. Jades come in different color tones and sometimes white and green color combination. The Nephrite jade is yellowish green in color but sometimes comes in whitish color. Nephrite jade found in Myanmar is considered much better than those of other countries.


Myanmar was called land of Gold, so that finding gold from many parts of Myanmar is nothing extraordinary. Foreigners were able to prospect for gold dredgers since 1900. Gold in Myanmar is regarded as a royal material, it is used to make jewelry and utensils for the royal court, Myanmar people who are buddhists apply gold plates and gold foils to pagodas and Buddha statues to show the reverence. Glittering pagodas around Myanmar proves the fact. In Myanmar, a global gold vein penetrate in the northern part, specifically at Hukong Valley in western Kachin State. By panning, small pieces and particles of gold are naturally found in various places in Myanmar.

Nawarat Koe Par or the Nine Noble Gems

This is the ring of the noble nine gems called “Nawarat koe par” ring and not usually worn in other setting such as a brooch or pendant, as this is worn exclusively by men. The nine gems are always set in the same order: the ruby in the middle, the diamond at top center, then, clockwise, comes the pearl, the coral, the topaz, the sapphire, the moonstone, the zircon, and finally the emerald. The ruby is for glory; the diamond for dignity; the pearl for grace; the coral for power; the topaz for health; the sapphire for love; the moonstone for perfection; the zircon for strength; and the emerald for peace. The men wear this ring on their right hands as this is considered the ‘clean’ hand and used for eating, etc, a tradition shared by all Asian countries. This “Nawarat koe par” ring symbolizes a man’s commitment to be pure in heart and thus establish his nobility in the world.

Myanmar Gems Mosaic

Myanmar mosaic art was off to a good start by the time of the Bagan period, as scholars and researchers, now testify. This noble art is seen mainly on royal and religious items and buildings. But sometimes mosaic is also used in artifacts and household objects of the common lay people to achieve a new sense of beauty and splendor. In this art there are four main disciplines on which the workmanship is based. The four types are Knut (flower style), Kapi (monkey shape), Gaza (elephant base) and nari (feminity). These four basics also apply to Myanmar painting and drawing. The materials have shining glorious colors mostly embedded with various precious gems and stones. The glass is lit with colorful, shining objects in mosaic art. Valuable precious gems and splendor to make them unique and attractive and thus fit for royal use. So they are bedecked with pearls, corals, jade, rubies etc. The Nine Noble Gems also decorate several items for royal use. When brilliant gems and fine stones are put on glass by means of starches from the barks of certain trees, in various styles and designs, this art reaches a high state of workmanship. Myanmar mosaic is also termed the art of systematic order on glass with gold for further embellishment. Experts make the glass that is to be embossed or embedded in various sizes and shapes in the forms of circles, squares, triangles, ovals, etc. according to the dictated of harmony and artistry.

Gems Museum

Located at Kaba Aye Pagoda Road, Kamayut Township, Yangon. Open from 9:30am to 5:00pm daily, except Mondays and gazette holidays. Admission Fees are US$ 5. Of the 100 counters in the building 30 on the ground floor, 34 each on the first and second floors are privately owned, whereas the remaining two counters on the ground floor are run by the Myanmar Gems Enterprise and Myanmar VES Joint Venture Co.,Ltd. These three floors of the Gems Mart present the whole range of Myanmar ruby, sapphire, period and a variety and a variety of assorted colored stones, jade, pearls in lots or embedded in exquisite jewelry, gold ware, silverware and jade figurines. These are sold in Myanmar Kyat, US$ or foreign exchange certificates (FEC). The Myanmar Gems Enterprise (MGE) under the Ministry of Mines annually holds an auction at the Emporium.Myanmar is fortunate to have jade in the north, gems in the center and pearls in the southern seas. Myanmar gems and precious stones have all the colors of the rainbow. Not only there are rubies and sapphires but also garnet, spinel, danburite, peridot, aquamarine, iolite, and amethyst.

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